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Providers and Tokens#

The building blocks of DI are Provider(s) and InjectionToken(s).

  • InjectionToken - a symbol or class representing an object or any value in Dependency Injection space.
  • Provider - provides a value to a specific token.

Defining Tokens#

Dependency Injection is an abstraction over actual objects and values.

There are three kinds of providers:

  • Class provider - creates an instance of a class
  • Value provider - provides ready-to-use value
  • Factory provider - function to provide a value


Using a class provider in GraphQL Modules is the easiest approach to DI. The class is instantiated automatically and in case of Operation Scope it's created only on demand.

Every Service should be decorated with @Injectable as follows:

import { Injectable } from 'graphql-modules' @Injectable() export class Data {} import { createModule } from 'graphql-modules' import { Data } from './data' export const myModule = createModule({ id: 'my-module', /* ... */ providers: [Data] })

It's a shorthand expression for:

{ provide: Data, useClass: Data, }


Value provider requires a Token that represents a value, either InjectionToken or a class.

{ provide: ApiKey, useValue: 'my-api-key', }


In case you want to create a dependent value, using a factory provider is the answer. Factory can be useful also to create an instance of a class, for example when using third-party libraries.

{ provide: ApiKey, useFactory(config: Config) { if (config.environment === 'production') { return 'my-api-key'; } return null; }, deps: [Config] }

Using Services and Tokens#

Provider is a way to define a value and match it with a Token or a Service. Let's see how to consume Services and Tokens.


Accessing a service is fairly simple. You ask for a service in a constructor of a class or by using Injector directly.

import { Auth } from './auth' const resolvers = { Query: { me(parent, args, context, info) { const auth = context.injector.get(Auth) return auth.getCurrentUser() } } }

Injector is available in GraphQL Context under injector property.


Consuming InjectionToken is very similar to Service. The only difference is that you need to use @Inject decorator but only in some cases.

import { ApiKey } from './keys' const resolvers = { Query: { me(parent, args, context, info) { const apiKey = context.injector.get(ApiKey) if (!this.key) { throw new Error('API key is required') } return auth.getCurrentUser() } } }

Injector is available in GraphQL Context under injector property.

Global Providers and Token#

Module is able to share tokens and providers with other modules, even application. When enabling a global flag, the provider still depends on an original Injector.

// Users module @Injectable({ global: true }) export class Auth { constructor(private logger: Logger) {} getCurrentUser() { logger.debug(`Asking for authenticated user`) return /*... */ } }

In the scenario above, we've got two modules: Posts and Users. Both modules defines their own Logger. Users module defines Auth service as globally available. Posts module defines Posts service.

When Posts.getMyPosts() is called, it fetches a current user from Auth service. The Auth.getCurrentUser() calls a logger (provided by Users module). In Posts.getMyPosts() a different logger is invoked (provided by Posts module).

What all of that mean? Because global providers are accessible in all modules, they still use the injector they were created by. Global providers are still isolated but their API is public to other modules.

Lazy with forwardRef#

The forwardRef function allows to refer to references which are not yet defined. Useful when circular dependency of modules is an issue.

import { Injectable, Inject } from 'graphql-modules' import { ApiKey } from './keys' @Injectable() class Posts { constructor(@Inject(forwardRef(() => ApiKey)) private key: string) {} allPosts() { if (!this.key) { throw new Error('API key is required') } return [ /* ... */ ] } }

Available Tokens#

GraphQL Modules have a set of built-in and ready to use Tokens. They may be handy in some situations.

  • CONTEXT - represents a provided GraphQL Context (GraphQLModules.GlobalContext).
  • MODULE_ID - represents an id of the current module.